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经济学人下载:移民入籍语言测试令人头秃(2)

Source: Economist    2021-02-23  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  

Even the keenest advocates of immigration agree that speaking the language helps migrants integrate. But they argue that the focus should be on helping them do so, not on overly ambitious targets many can never achieve. Many of Europe’s migrants today arrive with psychological problems born of fleeing war and catastrophe. Others work so hard that they struggle to find the time and energy for classes. Some are barely literate; answering fairly sophisticated written questions means first learning to read and write. When immigrants are told they must meet a highly demanding standard, many stop trying, say language teachers and researchers. They may then remain isolated in their ethnic communities, the only ones that will accept them. 

即使是最热衷的移民倡导者也认可,说当地语言有助于移民融入社会。但这些倡导者认为,重点应该放在帮助移民提高语言水平,从而融入社会这一点上,而不在于设立过于宏大而让很多人无法实现的目标。今天,许多欧洲移民带着逃离战争和灾难而产生的心理问题来到这里。有些人工作认真努力,但却没什么时间和精力去上课。有些人几乎不识字;回答相当复杂的书面问题意味着人们首先要学会读写。语言教师和研究人员表示,当移民被告知他们必须达到一个高要求的标准时,许多人停止了尝试。他们可能会继续隔绝在自己的种族社区中,毕竟这是唯一会接受他们的地方。

Ricky van Oers, a Dutch scholar affiliated to the Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, explains the effects of raising the bar in her home country. Once, knowledge of the language was assessed in an informal conversation with a local official. When in 2003 written tests were introduced, successful applications fell by half. Since 2007 classes in Dutch have been left to a mix of state and poorly regulated private schools. Reaching the necessary level is estimated to cost 3,600 euros ($4,380) on average, generally paid by the immigrant. Today, new arrivals have three years to reach that standard—one admittedly more modest than in Denmark—or face being fined up to 1,250 euros and being barred from permanent residency and citizenship until the test is passed. 

挪威西部应用科学大学的荷兰学者瑞奇·范·奥尔斯解释了其祖国抬高语言要求门槛造成的影响。申请者的荷兰语掌握程度曾经依靠与当地考官的非正式谈话来进行评估。2003年,荷兰引入了笔试,成功申请的人数自此减少了一半。自2007年以来,荷兰语课程一直由州立学校和监管不善的私立学校混合开设。达到必要的荷兰语水平估计平均花费3600欧元(合4380美元),一般由移民自己支付。如今,移民有三年的时间来达到入籍所需语言标准(荷兰入籍所需语言标准公认要比丹麦的要求更温和),否则将面临高达1250欧元的罚款,并被禁止获得永久居留权和公民身份,直到考试通过。

Countries that introduce language tests for citizenship should make sure teaching is of a good quality (the students themselves are in a poor position to spot a dodgy operator). They should learn from Germany, which subsidises lessons so generously that they are practically free. Help people attend by ensuring child care if they need it. Provide incentives such as assistance with work placements. Presented with a feasible goal that can be reached with better skills, newcomers will work harder than when ordered to scale a distant peak that they can scarcely see. 

引入入籍语言测试的国家应该确保教学质量良好(学生们自己很难识别不良教学机构)。这些国家应该向德国学习,德国对语言教学课程的资助非常慷慨,德国移民实际上是免费上课。如果移民者需要,国家还应该通过确保儿童看护,从而帮助他们上课。国家也应提供激励措施,如协助安排工作。相比被命令着去攀登遥不可及的高峰,当移民者面对可以通过提高语言技能就能达到的可行目标时会更加努力。


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